Thursday, April 26, 2018

Drupal 8.5.3 and 7.59 highly critical releases (SA-CORE-2018-004)

[Note] Open Atrium (a Drupal distribution) and CiviCRM (CMS integration with Drupal) are also affected by this vulnerability. Make sure that your deployment is updated to the latest version.


Drupal has released a new version that fixes a highly critical security vulnerability. We strongly recommend upgrading your existing Drupal 7 and 8 sites.

A remote code execution vulnerability exists within multiple subsystems of Drupal 7.x and 8.x. This potentially allows attackers to exploit multiple attack vectors on a Drupal site, which could result in the site being completely compromised. This vulnerability is related to Drupal core - Highly critical - Remote Code Execution - SA-CORE-2018-002. Both SA-CORE-2018-002 and this vulnerability are being exploited in the wild.

It is recommended that you upgrade your Drupal application to Drupal 7.59 or later and Drupal 8.5.3 or later. We highly recommend creating a backup before proceeding. You can follow our documentation to learn how to upgrade your application and ensure its security.

If you are unable to update immediately and have advanced Drupal administration skills, you may opt to patch your systems until such time as you are able to completely update. The Drupal community has provided patches which can be applied using the following procedure:

1. Move to Drupal directory (assuming /opt/bitnami/ as installdir):
cd /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/

2. Download the correct patch for your system based on the version of Drupal in use.

- For Drupal 7.x:
wget -O drupal.patch ''

- For Drupal 8.5.x:
wget -O drupal.patch ''

3. Apply the patch:
sudo git apply /opt/bitnami/apps/drupal/htdocs/drupal.patch

4. Restart the Apache web server:
sudo /opt/bitnami/ restart apache

Patching is a temporary solution until you find the time to perform a complete upgrade of your Drupal installation. These patches will only work if your site already has the fix from SA-CORE-2018-002 applied.

For new application deployments, including the Bitnami Launchpad, we are releasing Drupal 7.59 and 8.5.3 containers, installers, virtual machines and cloud images that include the fix to address this vulnerability. If you deploy Bitnami Drupal and it is not yet updated to its latest version, you will need to upgrade by following our documentation.

If you have further questions about Bitnami Drupal or this security issue, please post to our community forum, where we will be happy to help.

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Top reasons to move to multi-tier deployments with Bitnami

Authored by Greg DeRenne, Technical Marketing Engineer


The majority of images available in the Bitnami catalog or any of the Cloud Service Provider’s marketplace (Azure, AWS, Oracle Compute Infrastructure, Google Compute) are single tier architectures. This means that all of the required components run on a single Virtual Machine (VM).

A single VM solution has its benefits:
  • Extremely simple to understand and get started with
  • Cost effective. Depending on the cloud, usage may even fall into a free tier.
  • Quick to deploy (some VM’s spin up in just 2-3 minutes)
In summary, single VM solutions are ideal for development, testing, demonstrations, proof of concept and small scale use cases. 
To meet user demand for larger production use cases, Bitnami has been focused on building out multi-tier solutions. Multi-tier solutions have more than a single VM, and usually include additional infrastructure resources, such as gateways, security groups, load balancers, etc. Multi-tier solutions are ideal:
  • For production use (where higher run costs are justified)
  • When additional deployment options are needed (such as sizing, snapshots, and cloud-native managed services)

Current examples of multi-tier solutions include:

In addition to customer inquiry and demand, several factors influence what stacks we develop multi-tier solutions for. They generally follow into the following categories:
  • Horizontal scaling or high availability through redundancy (Jenkins, Elasticsearch, MySQL)
  • Vertical scaling flexibility and security (Wordpress, MEAN stack)

Knowing the scaling and usage requirements of multi-tier solutions, it’s understandable that they are often more complex and require additional assets and output types.


As you can see, a single-tier simply consists of a machine image for the specific cloud. For a multi-tier solution, Bitnami auto-generates the templates needed to build out all resources based on several configuration options you specify at the time of creation. (More on this later.)

The rest of this blog will explain what the top reasons to use Bitnami multi-tier solutions are, and why they matter. Several example multi-tier Bitnami deployments that are already available in the Marketplace will be used to help illustrate the points made. Note that some of the reasons may overlap with single VM solutions. For example, from an end-user perspective, both our single and multi-tier solutions are simple to use. However, the single VM is even simpler. 

Top reasons to consider using Multi-tier over Single-tier solutions


Bitnami application and developer stacks are offered for free to the user, only cloud consumption is paid for. It’s true, single-tier solutions are free from Bitnami as well, and cost less with respect to cloud usage… but as mentioned earlier, there are scenarios that justify the extra run costs. (Such as a production roll out, not a simple demo or proof of concept that only needs to run for a few hours.)

Further, if you consider the age old adage:
“Time is money.” Quoted by just about every business owner… ever.

Price can be more than just a monetary value. There is also time and effort to consider. As you read on, you will learn the complexity under the hood of Bitnami multi-tier solutions shields you from spending a lot of time and effort. How much? It differs from case to case, but it is usually measured in days and weeks, not just hours.


Improved performance is arguably the most important reason to go to a multi-tier architecture. When the database is split out from the application, the workload becomes distributed. Further, the configuration for each tier can be optimized. For example, if your application is CPU heavy, but light on database read/writes, you can use VMs that are optimized for compute on the application tier, but save money by not incurring extra cost for additional IOPS (input/output per second) and high disk throughput VMs on the database tier. In some use cases, a managed database service (such as Azure Cosmos DB or AWS RDS (Relational Database Service, using Aurora or MariaDB) may be preferred to rolling your own database install on VMs. Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) tackle the most challenging of IT and operations roles for their managed database services, including performance. Several Bitnami multi-tier solutions include managed database services. A good example is deploying a custom Node.js application that uses Azure’s load balancer and Cosmos DB configured for MongoDB.


The first step in moving from an all-in-one architecture to a multi-tier architecture involves splitting the database tier out on its own. Data is paramount, hence keeping the data secure is critical. Security best practices, many internal enterprise policies, and PCI (Payment Card Industry) compliance require database isolation. A multi-tiered architecture reduces the number of threat vectors to the data. Consider the basic multi-tier architecture for one of the most popular Bitnami application stacks (WordPress):
By default, firewall rules do not allow any remote access to the database, only access from the VMs in the data tier. However, the application tier allows external traffic to ports 22 (SSH), 80 (HTTP) and 443 (HTTPS). If that does not meet with your more robust security policies, not to worry, you are not without options. Simply modify the inbound firewall rules to turn off SSH access to the application tier. Some enterprises set up a dedicated management VPC (virtual private cloud), that includes a bastion host. Hence, remote access via SSH must go through the bastion host. That VPC and bastion host can be closely monitored, and restricted to a whitelist of source IP addresses as well, greatly reducing the potential for a data breach.

Bitnami multi-tier solutions are more secure by default, and our images are monitored and updated, especially when it comes to security patches.

A discussion about availability often includes reliability and redundancy as well.

The Node.js deployment discussed earlier also utilizes a managed database service. Azure’s Cosmos DB is a reliable, available, high throughput database service with geo-replication capabilities. Nice!


Note the write region is in the western U.S., and a read replica in the eastern U.S. This was configured at the time of creation, but it can be modified or added to later. Setting up a highly available, reliable, redundant and high throughput solution for your data like this is no small task. The majority of small and medium sized companies, even some larger enterprises, simply don't have the resources to design, configure, and maintain such an endeavor. The Cosmos DB service level agreement (SLA) offers 99.999% high availability. Bitnami has taken this into account when designing the Node.js HA cluster deployment for Azure.

From the application perspective, high availability is achieved through a load balancer sitting in front of multiple front-ends running your application.

Simple and includes Best Practices

There is no simpler way to roll out production ready, secure, reliable, performant application and development stacks than Bitnami’s multi-tier solutions. To help illustrate this, recall the Node.js application with load balancing on the front-end and MongoDB on the backend just discussed. When you click “create”, the following assets are generated for you by Bitnami via an Azure Resource Manager (ARM) template:


The Bitnami auto-generated ~1,000 line template used to create all resources is available for download and modification if needed. In addition to creating the resources, many best practices specific to the application are also included in the template. For example, various permissions, ports, enable/disable authentication for servers, etc. Once the VMs are up and registered with the load balancer, browse to the public IP and your good to go.

As another example, take the Kafka cluster on Google Compute.

Rather than configuring and launching a Zookeeper cluster, then multiple Kafka brokers on top of that, Bitnami generates the templates needed to configure the entire deployment. You can choose the number of Zookeeper and Kafka nodes to include with your cluster. The default values include a 1-node Zookeeper cluster with a 2-node Kafka cluster (as shown from a partial Deployment Manager (DM) template and the Google Cloud console):


Not to be forgotten, all of the multi-tier solutions available in the cloud marketplaces are built on the back of years of experience. They include extensive acquired knowledge baked in as best practices.
  • Unmatched experience building, packaging, deploying, and updating images (1000’s of builds and updates every month)
  • Stacks deployed over 1M times per month
  • 120+ applications and development stacks available
  • Stacks utilize cloud-native resources and managed services (when it’s best to do so)

“Make no mistake, you can only achieve simplicity through a lot of hard work.”  - Clarice Lispector

Let Bitnami’s hard work and proven best practices simplify rolling out multi-tier architectures in the cloud for you.

Next Steps

Take a multi-tier application or development stack for a test ride! Check out the Bitnami documentation on multi-tier solutions, the Bitnami Engineering blogs, and visit your favorite Cloud Service Provider’s (CSP) marketplace and search for: Bitnami Multi-Tier (or in some cases Bitnami Cluster)

Azure Documentation 
Amazon Documentation 
Google Documentation 

Tuesday, April 24, 2018

Meet the team: Andres Rodriguez Chamorro

The Bitnami team is a diverse group of talented people distributed all over the world. Get to know them better through this series of blog posts.

Based in our Seville Office, Andres works on our assets team.

A Brief Bio

I was born in Seville, Spain, though I did not started living here until several years later :). My first contact with computers was when I was around 8 years old, with a MSX computer (does anyone remember that?) which were mostly used for games, of course. At that point my mother was in college and she brought home some books and homework on BASIC and I started playing with it: that “coding” stuff was fascinating!....And the rest is history: different kind of computers and OSes, multiple languages to learn, etc. At the time, it was just a hobby that I really enjoyed, but it wasn’t something that I was interested in doing as a day job although I knew it would be a useful tool in whatever I ended up doing.

Years later, while I was still in college myself (doing non CS-related stuff) I got an opportunity to work as a System Administrator for one of the largest ISPs in Spain at the time and never looked back. Since then I have worked with System Administration, Engineering, and consultant work (where I mixed engineering, product and business roles) until I went back to a full-time Engineering position at CloudBees to work on Jenkins and Jenkins-based products.

Why you joined Bitnami and what excites you about working here?

The decision to join Bitnami was really easy since everything I saw about the company really resonated with me. First of all the challenge, as an engineer, you are always looking for interesting and challenging things to work on, and there are plenty of them here. Next, was meeting the team, a really talented and diverse group of people who are really awesome to learn from and work with. The mix of a big engineering office here in Seville with a strong distributed culture provides the best of both worlds. And last but not least, the Bitnami values and culture was a really good fit for me….this company works hard to build a real business based on stuff that people actually want and the goal is to achieve real, sustainable growth based on that.

What are you working on?

One of the main areas of products of Bitnami is the Application Catalog, which is what my team works on. It provides more than 150 applications, developer tools and infrastructure components conveniently packaged in multiple forms, from an installer to use in your personal computer or server, to pre-packaged virtual machines, to one-click deployments on our cloud partners, to containers and Helm charts for Kubernetes, among others. Each of these options have multiple flavors as well, from local installations for development and testing to full-fledged, production-ready multi-tier deployments in the cloud. As you can imagine, keeping that catalog up-to-date and with the latest security fixes involves many teams and creates an amazing amount of challenges. My job here is, together with all teams involved, to work on continuously improving all the automation involved with the catalog, so that we can offer more amazing stuff, faster and with greater efficiency.

Enjoying the Sierra Nevada in Spain

What do you like to do for fun?

I’ve always liked travelling, reading, hanging out with friends, good TV shows and of course, tinkering with computers :). Now, as a father of a 4-year-old, priorities change a little bit :), but life is more enjoyable than ever!

Interested in working with Bitnami and Andres? Apply for one of our open positions!